systemd.network — Network configuration
Network setup is performed by systemd-networkd(8).
Network files must have the extension
other extensions are ignored. Networks are applied to links whenever the links
.network files are read from the files located in the
system network directory
the volatile runtime network directory
/run/systemd/network and the local administration
All configuration files are collectively sorted and processed in lexical order,
regardless of the directories in which they live. However, files with
identical filenames replace each other. Files in
/etc have the highest priority, files in
/run take precedence over files with the same
/usr/lib. This can be used to override a
system-supplied configuration file with a local file if needed; a symlink in
/etc with the same name as a configuration file in
/usr/lib, pointing to
disables the configuration file entirely.
The network file contains a "
which determines if a given network file may be applied to a given device;
and a "
[Network]" section specifying how the device should
be configured. The first (in lexical order) of the network files that
matches a given device is applied.
A network file is said to match a device if each of the entries in the
[Match]" section matches, or if the section is empty.
The following keys are accepted:
The hardware address.
The persistent path, as exposed by the udev
ID_PATH". May contain shell
The driver currently bound to the device, as
exposed by the udev property "
of its parent device, or if that is not set the driver
as exposed by "
ethtool -i" of the
The device type, as exposed by the udev property
The device name, as exposed by the udev property
INTERFACE". May contain shell style
Matches against the hostname or machine ID of the
host. See "
Checks whether the system is executed in a virtualized
environment and optionally test whether it is a specific
implementation. See "
Checks whether a specific kernel command line option is
set (or if prefixed with the exclamation mark unset). See
Checks whether the system is running on a specific
architecture. See "
[Link]" section accepts the following keys:
[Network]" section accepts the following keys:
A description of the device. This is only used for presentation purposes.
Enables DHCPv4 and/or DHCPv6 support. Accepts
v4" or "
A boolean. Enables a basic DHCPv4 server on the device. Mostly useful for handing out leases to container instances.
A boolean. When true, enables IPv4 link-local support.
A boolean. When true, sets up the route needed for non-IPv4LL hosts to communicate with IPv4LL-only hosts. Defaults to false.
A boolean or "
resolve". When true, enables
Link-Local Multicast Name Resolution on the link, when set to
resolve" only resolution is enabled, but not
announcement. Defaults to true.
A static IPv4 or IPv6 address and its prefix length,
separated by a "
/" character. Specify this
key more than once to configure several addresses.
The format of the address must be as described in
This is a short-hand for an [Address] section only containing
an Address key (see below). This option may be specified
more than once.
If the specified address is 0.0.0.0 (for IPv4) or [::] (for IPv6), a new address range of the requested size is automatically allocated from a system-wide pool of unused ranges. The allocated range is checked against all current network interfaces and all known network configuration files to avoid address range conflicts. The default system-wide pool consists of 192.168.0.0/16, 172.16.0.0/12 and 10.0.0.0/8 for IPv4, and fc00::/7 for IPv6. This functionality is useful to manage a large number of dynamically created network interfaces with the same network configuration and automatic address range assignment.
The gateway address, which must be in the format described in inet_pton(3). This is a short-hand for a [Route] section only containing a Gateway key. This option may be specified more than once.
A DNS server address, which must be in the format described in inet_pton(3). This option may be specified more than once.
The domains used for DNS resolution over this link.
An NTP server address. This option may be specified more than once.
The name of the bridge to add the link to.
The name of the bond to add the link to.
The name of a VLAN to create on the link. This option may be specified more than once.
The name of a MACVLAN to create on the link. This option may be specified more than once.
The name of a VXLAN to create on the link. This option may be specified more than once.
The name of a Tunnel to create on the link. This option may be specified more than once.
[Address]" section accepts the following keys.
Specify several "
[Address]" sections to configure several
As in the "
[Network]" section. This key is mandatory.
The peer address in a point-to-point connection. Accepts the same format as
The broadcast address, which must be in the format described in
This key only applies to IPv4 addresses. If it is not given, it is
derived from the "
An address label.
[Route]" section accepts the following keys. Specify
[Route]" sections to configure several routes.
As in the "
The destination prefix of the route. Possibly followed by a slash and the prefixlength. If omitted, a full-length host route is assumed.
The source prefix of the route. Possibly followed by a slash and the prefixlength. If omitted, a full-length host route is assumed.
The metric of the route. An unsigned integer
[DHCP]" section accepts the following keys:
When true (the default), the DNS servers received from the DHCP server will be used and take precedence over any statically configured ones.
When true, the interface maximum transmission unit from the DHCP server will be used on the current link. Defaults to false.
When true (the default), the machine's hostname will be sent to the DHCP server
When true (the default), the hostname received from the DHCP server will be used as the transient hostname.
When true (not the default), the domain name received from the DHCP server will be used for DNS resolution over this link.
When true (the default), the static routes will be requested from the DHCP server and added to the routing table with metric of 1024.
When true, the connection will never be torn down even if the DHCP lease expires. This is contrary to the DHCP specification, but may be the best choice if, say, the root filesystem relies on this connection. Defaults to false.
The vendor class identifier used to identify vendor type and configuration.
Request the server to use broadcast messages before the IP address has been configured. This is necessary for devices that cannot receive RAW packets, or that cannot receive packets at all before an IP address has been configured. On the other hand, this must not be enabled on networks where broadcasts are filtered out.
Set the routing metric for routes specified by the DHCP server.
[Bridge]" section accepts the following keys.
Each port in a bridge may have different speed. Cost is used to decide which link to use. Faster interfaces should have lower costs
Example 1. /etc/systemd/network/50-static.network
[Match] Name=enp2s0 [Network] Address=192.168.0.15/24 Gateway=192.168.0.1
Example 3. /etc/systemd/network/bridge-static.network
[Match] Name=bridge0 [Network] Address=192.168.0.15/24 Gateway=192.168.0.1 DNS=192.168.0.1
Example 4. /etc/systemd/network/bridge-slave-interface.network
[Match] Name=enp2s0 [Network] Bridge=bridge0