systemd.netdev — Virtual Network Device configuration
Network setup is performed by systemd-networkd(8).
Virtual Network Device files must have the extension
.netdev; other extensions are ignored. Virtual
network devices are created as soon as networkd is started. If a netdev
with the specified name already exists, networkd will use that as-is
rather than create its own. Note that the settings of the pre-existing
netdev will not be changed by networkd.
.netdev files are read from the files located in the
system network directory
the volatile runtime network directory
/run/systemd/network and the local administration
All configuration files are collectively sorted and processed in lexical order,
regardless of the directories in which they live. However, files with
identical filenames replace each other. Files in
/etc have the highest priority, files in
/run take precedence over files with the same
/usr/lib. This can be used to override a
system-supplied configuration file with a local file if needed; a symlink in
/etc with the same name as a configuration file in
/usr/lib, pointing to
disables the configuration file entirely.
A virtual network device is only created if the
[Match]" section matches the current
environment, or if the section is empty. The following keys are accepted:
Matches against the hostname or machine ID of the
host. See "
Checks whether the system is executed in a virtualized
environment and optionally test whether it is a specific
implementation. See "
Checks whether a specific kernel command line option is
set (or if prefixed with the exclamation mark unset). See
Checks whether the system is running on a specific
architecture. See "
[NetDev]" section accepts the following
A free-form description of the netdev.
The interface name used when creating the netdev. This option is compulsory.
The netdev kind. Currently, "
tap" and "
are supported. This option is compulsory.
The maximum transmission unit in bytes to
set for the device. The usual suffixes K, M, G,
are supported and are understood to the base of
1024. This key is not currently suported for
tun" or "
The MAC address to use for the device.
If none is given, one is generated based on
the interface name and the
This key is not currently suported for "
tun" or "
[VLAN]" section only applies for netdevs of kind "
and accepts the following key:
The VLAN ID to use. An integer in the range 0–4094. This option is compulsory.
[MACVLAN]" section only applies for netdevs of kind
macvlan", and accepts the following key:
The MACVLAN mode to use. The supported options are
bridge" and "
[VXLAN]" section only applies for netdevs of kind
vxlan", and accepts the following key:
The VXLAN ID to use.
An assigned multicast group IP address.
The Type Of Service byte value for a vxlan interface.
A fixed Time To Live N on Virtual eXtensible Local Area Network packets. N is a number in the range 1-255. 0 is a special value meaning that packets inherit the TTL value.
A boolean. When true, enables dynamic MAC learning to discover remote MAC addresses.
[Tunnel]" section only applies for netdevs of kind
vti" and accepts the following keys:
A static local address for tunneled packets. It must be an address on another interface of this host.
The remote endpoint of the tunnel.
The Type Of Service byte value for a tunnel interface. For details about the TOS see the Type of Service in the Internet Protocol Suite document.
A fixed Time To Live N on tunneled packets. N is a number in the range 1-255. 0 is a special value meaning that packets inherit the TTL value. The default value for IPv4 tunnels is: inherit. The default value for IPv6 tunnels is: 64.
A boolean. When true, enables Path MTU Discovery on the tunnel.
[Peer]" section only applies for netdevs of kind "
and accepts the following key:
[Tun]" section only applies for netdevs of kind
tun", and accepts the following keys:
Takes a boolean argument. Configures whether
all packets are queued at the device (enabled), or a fixed number
of packets are queued at the device and the rest at the
qdisc". Defaults to "
Takes a boolean argument. Configures whether to
use multiple file descriptors (queues) to parallelize packets
sending and receiving. Defaults to "
Takes a boolean argument. Configures whether packets
should be prepened with four extra bytes (two flag bytes and two
protocol bytes). If disabled it indicates that the packets will be
pure IP packets. Defaults to "
User to grant access to the
Group to grant access to the
[Tap]" section only applies for netdevs of kind
tap", and accepts the same keys as the
[Bond]" section accepts the following
Specifies one of the bonding policies. The default is
balance-rr" (round robin). Possible values are
Selects the transmit hash policy to use for slave selection in
balance-xor, 802.3ad, and tlb modes. Possible values are
Specifies the rate with which link partner
transmits Link Aggregation Control Protocol Data Unit packets
in 802.3ad mode. Possible values are
slow", which requests partner to transmit LACPDUs every 30 seconds, and
fast", which requests partner to transmit LACPDUs every second.
The default value is "
Specifies the frequency that Media Independent Interface link monitoring will occur. A value of zero disables MII link monitoring. This values is rounded down to the nearest millisecond. The default value is 0.
Specifies the delay before a link is enabled after a link up status has been detected. This value is rounded down to a multiple of MIIMonitorSec. The default value is 0.
Specifies the delay before a link is disabled after a link down status has been detected. This value is rounded down to a multiple of MIIMonitorSec. The default value is 0.
Example 2. /etc/systemd/network/vlan1.netdev
[Match] Virtualization=no [NetDev] Name=vlan1 Kind=vlan [VLAN] Id=1
Example 3. /etc/systemd/network/ipip.netdev
[NetDev] Name=ipip-tun Kind=ipip MTUBytes=1480 [Tunnel] Local=192.168.223.238 Remote=126.96.36.199 TTL=64
Example 4. /etc/systemd/network/tap.netdev
[NetDev] Name=tap-test Kind=tap [Tap] MultiQueue=true PacketInfo=true
Example 5. /etc/systemd/network/sit.netdev
[NetDev] Name=sit-tun Kind=sit MTUBytes=1480 [Tunnel] Local=10.65.223.238 Remote=10.65.223.239
Example 6. /etc/systemd/network/gre.netdev
[NetDev] Name=gre-tun Kind=gre MTUBytes=1480 [Tunnel] Local=10.65.223.238 Remote=10.65.223.239
Example 7. /etc/systemd/network/vti.netdev
[NetDev] Name=vti-tun Kind=vti MTUBytes=1480 [Tunnel] Local=10.65.223.238 Remote=10.65.223.239
Example 9. /etc/systemd/network/dummy.netdev
[NetDev] Name=dummy-test Kind=dummy MACAddress=12:34:56:78:9a:bc