systemd.swap — Swap unit configuration
A unit configuration file whose name ends in
.swap" encodes information about a swap device
or file for memory paging controlled and supervised by
This man page lists the configuration options specific to this unit type. See systemd.unit(5) for the common options of all unit configuration files. The common configuration items are configured in the generic [Unit] and [Install] sections. The swap specific configuration options are configured in the [Swap] section.
Additional options are listed in systemd.exec(5), which define the execution environment the swapon(8) binary is executed in, in systemd.kill(5), which define the way these processes are terminated, and in systemd.resource-control(5), which configure resource control settings for these processes of the unit.
Swap units must be named after the devices or files they control. Example: the swap device
/dev/sda5 must be configured in a unit file
details about the escaping logic used to convert a file system path to a unit name, see
systemd.unit(5). Note that swap
units cannot be templated, nor is possible to add multiple names to a swap unit by creating additional symlinks to
The following dependencies are implicitly added:
All swap units automatically get the
dependencies on the device units or the mount units of the files
they are activated from.
The following dependencies are added unless
DefaultDependencies=no is set:
Swap units automatically acquire a
Conflicts= and a
Before= dependency on
umount.target so that they are deactivated at
shutdown as well as a
Swap units may either be configured via unit files, or via
for details). Swaps listed in
be converted into native units dynamically at boot and when the
configuration of the system manager is reloaded. See
for details about the conversion.
If a swap device or file is configured in both
/etc/fstab and a unit file, the configuration
in the latter takes precedence.
/etc/fstab, a few special
options are understood by systemd which influence how dependencies
are created for swap units.
noauto, the swap unit
will not be added as a dependency for
swap.target. This means that it will not
be activated automatically during boot, unless it is pulled in
by some other unit. The
auto option has the
opposite meaning and is the default.
nofail, the swap unit
will be only wanted, not required by
swap.target. This means that the boot
will continue even if this swap device is not activated
Swap files must include a [Swap] section, which carries information about the swap device it supervises. A number of options that may be used in this section are shared with other unit types. These options are documented in systemd.exec(5) and systemd.kill(5). The options specific to the [Swap] section of swap units are the following:
Takes an absolute path of a device node or file to use for paging. See swapon(8) for
details. If this refers to a device node, a dependency on the respective device unit is automatically
systemd.device(5) for more
information.) If this refers to a file, a dependency on the respective mount unit is automatically
created. (See systemd.mount(5)
for more information.) This option is mandatory. Note that the usual specifier expansion is applied to this
setting, literal percent characters should hence be written as "
Swap priority to use when activating the swap
device or file. This takes an integer. This setting is
optional and ignored when the priority is set by
pri= in the
May contain an option string for the swap device. This may be used for controlling discard
options among other functionality, if the swap backing device supports the discard or trim operation. (See
for more information.) Note that the usual specifier expansion is applied to this setting, literal percent
characters should hence be written as "
Configures the time to wait for the swapon
command to finish. If a command does not exit within the
configured time, the swap will be considered failed and be
shut down again. All commands still running will be terminated
SIGTERM, and after another
delay of this time with
Takes a unit-less value in seconds, or a time span value such
as "5min 20s". Pass "
0" to disable the
timeout logic. Defaults to
DefaultTimeoutStartSec= from the manager
configuration file (see