systemd-journald.service, systemd-journald.socket, systemd-journald-dev-log.socket, systemd-journald-audit.socket, systemd-journald@.service, systemd-journald@.socket, systemd-journald-varlink@.socket, systemd-journald — Journal service
systemd-journald is a system service
that collects and stores logging data. It creates and maintains
structured, indexed journals based on logging information that is
received from a variety of sources:
Kernel log messages, via kmsg
Simple system log messages, via the
Standard output and standard error of service units. For further details see below.
Audit records, originating from the kernel audit subsystem
The daemon will implicitly collect numerous metadata fields for each log messages in a secure and unfakeable way. See systemd.journal-fields(7) for more information about the collected metadata.
Log data collected by the journal is primarily text-based but can also include binary data where necessary. Individual fields making up a log record stored in the journal may be up to 2⁶⁴-1 bytes in size.
The journal service stores log data either persistently below
/var/log/journal or in a
volatile way below
/run/log/journal/ (in the latter case it is lost at reboot). By default, log
data is stored persistently if
/var/log/journal/ exists during boot, with an implicit fallback
to volatile storage otherwise. Use
journald.conf(5) to configure
where log data is placed, independently of the existence of
Note that journald will initially use volatile storage, until a call to
journalctl --flush (or sending
SIGUSR1 to journald) will cause
it to switch to persistent logging (under the conditions mentioned above). This is done automatically
on boot via "
On systems where
/var/log/journal/ does not exist yet but where persistent logging is
desired (and the default
journald.conf is used), it is sufficient to create the directory, and
ensure it has the correct access modes and ownership:
mkdir -p /var/log/journal systemd-tmpfiles --create --prefix /var/log/journal
See journald.conf(5) for information about the configuration of this service.
The systemd service manager invokes all service processes with standard output and standard error connected
to the journal by default. This behaviour may be altered via the
StandardError= unit file settings, see
systemd.exec(5) for details. The
journal converts the log byte stream received this way into individual log records, splitting the stream at newline
systemd-journald.service is stopped, the stream connections associated with all
services are terminated. Further writes to those streams by the service will result in
errors. In order to react gracefully in this case it is recommended that programs logging to standard output/error
ignore such errors. If the
SIGPIPE UNIX signal handler is not blocked or turned off, such
write attempts will also result in such process signals being generated, see
To mitigate this issue, systemd service manager explicitly turns off the
signal for all invoked processes by default (this may be changed for each unit individually via the
IgnoreSIGPIPE= option, see
details). After the standard output/standard error streams have been terminated they may not be recovered
until the services they are associated with are restarted. Note that during normal operation,
systemd-journald.service stores copies of the file descriptors for those streams in
the service manager. If
systemd-journald.service is restarted using
systemctl restart or equivalent operation instead of a pair of separate
systemctl stop and systemctl start commands (or equivalent
operations), these stream connections are not terminated and survive the restart. It is thus safe to
systemd-journald.service, but stopping it is not recommended.
Note that the log record metadata for records transferred via such standard output/error streams reflect the metadata of the peer the stream was originally created for. If the stream connection is passed on to other processes (such as further child processes forked off the main service process), the log records will not reflect their metadata, but will continue to describe the original process. This is different from the other logging transports listed above, which are inherently record based and where the metadata is always associated with the individual record.
In addition to the implicit standard output/error logging of services, stream logging is also available via the systemd-cat(1) command line tool.
Currently, the number of parallel log streams
systemd-journald will accept is limited to
4096. When this limit is reached further log streams may be established but will receive
EPIPE right from the beginning.
Journal 'namespaces' are both a mechanism for logically isolating the log stream of projects
consisting of one or more services from the rest of the system and a mechanism for improving
performance. Multiple journal namespaces may exist simultaneously, each defining its own, independent log
stream managed by its own instance of systemd-journald. Namespaces are independent of
each other, both in the data store and in the IPC interface. By default only a single 'default' namespace
exists, managed by
systemd-journald.service (and its associated socket
units). Additional namespaces are created by starting an instance of the
systemd-journald@.service service template. The instance name is the namespace
identifier, which is a short string used for referencing the journal namespace. Service units may be
assigned to a specific journal namespace through the
LogNamespace= unit file setting,
see systemd.exec(5) for
--namespace= switch of
journalctl(1) may be
used to view the log stream of a specific namespace. If the switch is not used the log stream of the
default namespace is shown, i.e. log data from other namespaces is not visible.
Services associated with a specific log namespace may log via syslog, the native logging protocol of the journal and via stdout/stderr; the logging from all three transports is associated with the namespace.
By default only the default namespace will collect kernel and audit log messages.
The systemd-journald instance of the default namespace is configured through
/etc/systemd/journald.conf (see below), while the other instances are configured
/etc/systemd/journald@. The journal
log data for the default namespace is placed in
/var/log/journal/ (see below) while the data
for the other namespaces is located in
Request that journal data from
/run/ is flushed to
/var/ in order to make it persistent (if this is enabled). This must be used
/var/ is mounted, as otherwise log data from
never flushed to
/var/ regardless of the configuration. Use the
journalctl --flush command to request flushing of the journal files, and wait for
the operation to complete. See
Request immediate rotation of the journal files. Use the journalctl --rotate command to request journal file rotation, and wait for the operation to complete.
Request that all unwritten log data is written to disk. Use the journalctl --sync command to trigger journal synchronization, and wait for the operation to complete.
A few configuration parameters from
journald.conf may be overridden on the kernel
Enables/disables forwarding of collected log messages to syslog, the kernel log buffer, the system console or wall.
See journald.conf(5) for information about these settings.
Note that these kernel command line options are only honoured by the default namespace, see above.
Journal files are, by default, owned and readable by the
systemd-journal" system group but are not
writable. Adding a user to this group thus enables them to read
the journal files.
By default, each user, with a UID outside the range of system users,
dynamic service users, and the nobody user, will get their own set of
journal files in
Users, Groups, UIDs and GIDs on systemd systems
for more details about UID ranges. These journal
files will not be owned by the user, however, in order to avoid
that the user can write to them directly. Instead, file system
ACLs are used to ensure the user gets read access only.
Additional users and groups may be granted access to journal
files via file system access control lists (ACL). Distributions
and administrators may choose to grant read access to all members
of the "
wheel" and "
groups with a command such as the following:
# setfacl -Rnm g:wheel:rx,d:g:wheel:rx,g:adm:rx,d:g:adm:rx /var/log/journal/
Note that this command will update the ACLs both for
existing journal files and for future journal files created in the
Configure systemd-journald behavior. See journald.conf(5).
systemd-journald writes entries to files in
with the "
.journal" suffix. If the daemon is
stopped uncleanly, or if the files are found to be corrupted,
they are renamed using the "
suffix, and systemd-journald starts writing
to a new file.
/run/ is used when
/var/log/journal is not available, or
Storage=volatile is set in the
systemd-journald ceases writing to a journal file,
it will be renamed to "
Such files are "archived" and will not be written to any more.
In general, it is safe to read or copy any journal file (active or archived). journalctl(1) and the functions in the sd-journal(3) library should be able to read all entries that have been fully written.
systemd-journald will automatically remove the oldest
archived journal files to limit disk use. See
and related settings in
Sockets and other file node paths that systemd-journald will
listen on and are visible in the file system. In addition to these,
systemd-journald can listen for audit events using netlink(7),
depending on whether "
systemd-journald-audit.socket" is enabled or
If journal namespacing is used these paths are slightly altered to include a namespace identifier, see above.