sd_journal_print, sd_journal_printv, sd_journal_send, sd_journal_sendv, sd_journal_perror, SD_JOURNAL_SUPPRESS_LOCATION — Submit log entries to the journal
|const char *format,|
|const char *format,|
|const char *format,|
|const struct iovec *iov,|
|const char *message|
sd_journal_print() may be used to submit simple, plain text log entries to the system
journal. The first argument is a priority value. This is followed by a format string and its parameters, similar to
The priority value is one of
LOG_DEBUG, as defined in
syslog.h, see syslog(3) for details. It is
recommended to use this call to submit log messages in the application locale or system locale and in UTF-8 format,
but no such restrictions are enforced. Note that log messages written using this function are generally not
expected to end in a new-line character. However, as all trailing whitespace (including spaces, new-lines,
tabulators and carriage returns) are automatically stripped from the logged string, it is acceptable to specify one
(or more). Empty lines (after trailing whitespace removal) are suppressed. On non-empty lines, leading whitespace
(as well as inner whitespace) is left unmodified.
sd_journal_printv() is similar to
sd_journal_print() but takes a variable
argument list encapsulated in an object of type
for more information) instead of the format string. It is
otherwise equivalent in behavior.
sd_journal_send() may be used to submit structured log entries to the system journal. It
takes a series of format strings, each immediately followed by their associated parameters, terminated by
NULL. The strings passed should be of the format "
variable name must be in uppercase and consist only of characters, numbers and underscores, and may not begin with
an underscore. (All assignments that do not follow this syntax will be ignored.) The value can be of any size and
format. It is highly recommended to submit text strings formatted in the UTF-8 character encoding only, and submit
binary fields only when formatting in UTF-8 strings is not sensible. A number of well-known fields are defined, see
details, but additional application defined fields may be used. A variable may be assigned more than one value per
entry. If this function is used, trailing whitespace is automatically removed from each formatted field.
sd_journal_sendv() is similar to
sd_journal_send() but takes an
struct iovec (as defined in
uio.h, see readv(3) for details)
instead of the format string. Each structure should reference one field of the entry to submit. The second argument
specifies the number of structures in the array.
sd_journal_sendv() is particularly useful to
submit binary objects to the journal where that is necessary. Note that this function wil not strip trailing
whitespace of the passed fields, but passes the specified data along unmodified. This is different from both
sd_journal_send() described above, which are based
on format strings, and do strip trailing whitespace.
sd_journal_perror() is a similar to
and writes a message to the journal that consists of the passed
string, suffixed with ": " and a human-readable representation of
the current error code stored in
If the message string is passed as
empty string, only the error string representation will be
written, prefixed with nothing. An additional journal field ERRNO=
is included in the entry containing the numeric error code
formatted as decimal string. The log priority used is
sd_journal_send() is a
sd_journal_sendv() to make it
easier to use when only text strings shall be submitted. Also, the
following two calls are mostly equivalent:
sd_journal_print(LOG_INFO, "Hello World, this is PID %lu!", (unsigned long) getpid()); sd_journal_send("MESSAGE=Hello World, this is PID %lu!", (unsigned long) getpid(), "PRIORITY=%i", LOG_INFO, NULL);
Note that these calls implicitly add fields for the source
file, function name and code line where invoked. This is
implemented with macros. If this is not desired, it can be turned
off by defining SD_JOURNAL_SUPPRESS_LOCATION before including
largely be used interchangeably
functionality-wise. However, note that log messages
logged via the former take a different path to the
journal server than the later, and hence global
chronological ordering between the two streams cannot
be guaranteed. Using
sd_journal_print() has the
benefit of logging source code line, filenames, and
functions as metadata along all entries, and
guaranteeing chronological ordering with structured
log entries that are generated via
syslog() has the benefit of being
The four calls return 0 on success or a negative errno-style error code. The errno(3) variable itself is not altered.
If systemd-journald(8) is not running (the socket is not present), those functions do nothing, and also return 0.
All functions listed here are thread-safe and may be called in parallel from multiple threads.
sd_journal_sendv() is "async signal safe" in the meaning of
not async signal safe.
sd_journal_sendv() interfaces are available
as a shared library, which can be compiled and linked to with the