systemd-repart, systemd-repart.service — Automatically grow and add partitions
systemd-repart [OPTIONS...] [
systemd-repart grows and adds partitions to a partition table, based on the configuration files described in repart.d(5).
If invoked with no arguments, it operates on the block device backing the root file system
partition of the running OS, thus growing and adding partitions of the booted OS image itself. If
--image= is used it will operate on the specified image file. When called in the
initrd it operates on the block device backing
/sysroot/ instead, i.e. on the block
device the system will soon transition into. The
systemd-repart.service service is
generally run at boot in the initrd, in order to augment the partition table of the OS before its
partitions are mounted. systemd-repart (mostly) operates in a purely incremental mode:
it only grows existing and adds new partitions; it does not shrink, delete or move existing partitions.
The service is intended to be run on every boot, but when it detects that the partition table already
matches the installed
repart.d/*.conf configuration files, it executes no
systemd-repart is intended to be used when deploying OS images, to automatically adjust them to the system they are running on, during first boot. This way the deployed image can be minimal in size and may be augmented automatically at boot when needed, taking possession of disk space available but not yet used. Specifically the following use cases are among those covered:
The root partition may be grown to cover the whole available disk space.
/home/, swap or
/srv/ partition can be
A second (or third, …) root partition may be added, to cover A/B style setups where a second version of the root file system is alternatingly used for implementing update schemes. The deployed image would carry only a single partition ("A") but on first boot a second partition ("B") for this purpose is automatically created.
The algorithm executed by systemd-repart is roughly as follows:
repart.d/*.conf configuration files are loaded and parsed,
and ordered by filename (without the directory prefix). For each configuration file,
drop-in files are looked for in directories with same name as the configuration file
with a suffix ".d" added.
The partition table already existing on the block device is loaded and parsed.
The existing partitions in the partition table are matched up with the
repart.d/*.conf files by GPT partition type UUID. The first existing partition
of a specific type is assigned the first configuration file declaring the same type. The second
existing partition of a specific type is then assigned the second configuration file declaring the same
type, and so on. After this iterative assigning is complete any left-over existing partitions that have
no matching configuration file are considered "foreign" and left as they are. And any configuration
files for which no partition currently exists are understood as a request to create such a partition.
Partitions that shall be created are now allocated on the disk, taking the size constraints and weights declared in the configuration files into account. Free space is used within the limits set by size and padding requests. In addition, existing partitions that should be grown are grown. New partitions are always appended to the end of the partition table, taking the first partition table slot whose index is greater than the indexes of all existing partitions. Partitions are never reordered and thus partition numbers remain stable. When partitions are created, they are placed in the smallest area of free space that is large enough to satisfy the size and padding limits. This means that partitions might have different order on disk than in the partition table. Note that this allocation happens in memory only, the partition table on disk is not updated yet.
All existing partitions for which configuration files exist and which currently have no GPT partition label set will be assigned a label, either explicitly configured in the configuration or — if that's missing — derived automatically from the partition type. The same is done for all partitions that are newly created. These assignments are done in memory only, too, the disk is not updated yet.
Similarly, all existing partitions for which configuration files exist and which currently have an all-zero identifying UUID will be assigned a new UUID. This UUID is cryptographically hashed from a common seed value together with the partition type UUID (and a counter in case multiple partitions of the same type are defined), see below. The same is done for all partitions that are created anew. These assignments are done in memory only, too, the disk is not updated yet.
Similarly, if the disk's volume UUID is all zeroes it is also initialized, also cryptographically hashed from the same common seed value. This is done in memory only too.
The disk space assigned to new partitions (i.e. what was previously free space) is now
erased. Specifically, all file system signatures are removed, and if the device supports it, the
BLKDISCARD I/O control command is issued to inform the hardware that the space is
now empty. In addition any "padding" between partitions and at the end of the device is similarly
The new partition table is finally written to disk. The kernel is asked to reread the partition table.
As exception to the normally strictly incremental operation, when called in a special "factory
reset" mode, systemd-repart may also be used to erase existing partitions to
reset an installation back to vendor defaults. This mode of operation is used when either the
--factory-reset=yes switch is passed on the tool's command line, or the
systemd.factory_reset=yes option specified on the kernel command line, or the
FactoryReset EFI variable (vendor UUID
8cf2644b-4b0b-428f-9387-6d876050dc67) is set to "yes". It alters the algorithm above
slightly: between the 3rd and the 4th step above any partition marked explicitly via the
FactoryReset= boolean is deleted, and the algorithm restarted, thus immediately
re-creating these partitions anew empty.
Note that systemd-repart by default only changes partition tables, it does not
create or resize any file systems within these partitions, unless the
configuration option is specified. Also note that there are also separate mechanisms available for this
purpose, for example
The UUIDs identifying the new partitions created (or assigned to existing partitions that have no
UUID yet), as well as the disk as a whole are hashed cryptographically from a common seed value. This
seed value is usually the
machine-id(5) of the
system, so that the machine ID reproducibly determines the UUIDs assigned to all partitions. If the
machine ID cannot be read (or the user passes
--seed=random, see below) the seed is
generated randomly instead, so that the partition UUIDs are also effectively random. The seed value may
also be set explicitly, formatted as UUID via the
--seed= option. By hashing these UUIDs
from a common seed images prepared with this tool become reproducible and the result of the algorithm
The positional argument should specify the block device to operate on. Instead of a block device
node path a regular file may be specified too, in which case the command operates on it like it would if
a loopback block device node was specified with the file attached. If
specified the specified path is created as regular file, which is useful for generating disk images from
The following options are understood:
Takes a boolean. If this switch is not specified
the implied default. Controls whether
systemd-repart executes the requested
re-partition operations or whether it should only show what it would do. Unless
--dry-run=no is specified
systemd-repart will not actually
touch the device's partition table.
Takes one of "
force" or "
create". Controls how to
operate on block devices that are entirely empty, i.e. carry no partition table/disk label yet. If
this switch is not specified the implied default is "
refuse" systemd-repart requires that the block device
it shall operate on already carries a partition table and refuses operation if none is found. If
allow" the command will extend an existing partition table or create a new one if
none exists. If "
require" the command will create a new partition table if none
exists so far, and refuse operation if one already exists. If "
force" it will create
a fresh partition table unconditionally, erasing the disk fully in effect. If
force" no existing partitions will be taken into account or survive the
operation. Hence: use with care, this is a great way to lose all your data. If
create" a new loopback file is create under the path passed via the device node
parameter, of the size indicated with
--size=, see below.
Takes a boolean. If this switch is not specified
the implied default. Controls whether to issue the
BLKDISCARD I/O control
command on the space taken up by any added partitions or on the space in between them. Usually, it's
a good idea to issue this request since it tells the underlying hardware that the covered blocks
shall be considered empty, improving performance. If operating on a regular file instead of a block
device node, a sparse file is generated.
Takes a size in bytes, using the usual K, M, G, T suffixes, or the special value
auto". If used the specified device node path must refer to a regular file, which
is then grown to the specified size if smaller, before any change is made to the partition table. If
specified as "
auto" the minimal size for the disk image is automatically determined
(i.e. the minimal sizes of all partitions are summed up, taking space for additional metadata into
account). This switch is not supported if the specified node is a block device. This switch has no
effect if the file is already as large as the specified size or larger. The specified size is
implicitly rounded up to multiples of 4096. When used with
specifies the initial size of the loopback file to create.
--size=auto option takes the sizes of pre-existing partitions into
account. However, it does not accommodate for partition tables that are not tightly packed: the
configured partitions might still not fit into the backing device if empty space exists between
pre-existing partitions (or before the first partition) that cannot be fully filled by partitions to
grow or create.
Also note that the automatic size determination does not take files or directories specified
CopyFiles= into account: operation might fail if the specified files or
directories require more disk space then the configured per-partition minimal size
Takes boolean. If this switch is not specified
the implied default. Controls whether to operate in "factory reset" mode, see above. If set to true
this will remove all existing partitions marked with
FactoryReset= set to yes
early while executing the re-partitioning algorithm. Use with care, this is a great way to lose all
your data. Note that partition files need to explicitly turn
FactoryReset= on, as
the option defaults to off. If no partitions are marked for factory reset this switch has no
effect. Note that there are two other methods to request factory reset operation: via the kernel
command line and via an EFI variable, see above.
If this switch is specified the disk is not re-partitioned. Instead it is determined
if any existing partitions are marked with
FactoryReset=. If there are the tool
will exit with exit status zero, otherwise non-zero. This switch may be used to quickly determine
whether the running system supports a factory reset mechanism built on
Takes a path to a directory to use as root file system when searching for
repart.d/*.conf files, for the machine ID file to use as seed and for the
CopyBlocks= source files and directories. By
default when invoked on the regular system this defaults to the host's root file system
/. If invoked from the initrd this defaults to
so that the tool operates on the configuration and machine ID stored in the root file system later
transitioned into itself.
--copy-source= for a more restricted option that only affects
Takes a path to a disk image file or device to mount and use in a similar fashion to
--root=, see above.
Takes an image policy string as argument, as per
policy is enforced when operating on the disk image specified via
above. If not specified defaults to the "
*" policy, i.e. all recognized file systems
in the image are used.
Takes a UUID as argument or the special value
random. If a UUID
is specified the UUIDs to assign to partitions and the partition table itself are derived via
cryptographic hashing from it. If not specified it is attempted to read the machine ID from the host
(or more precisely, the root directory configured via
--root=) and use it as seed
instead, falling back to a randomized seed otherwise. Use
--seed=random to force a
randomized seed. Explicitly specifying the seed may be used to generated strictly reproducible
Takes a boolean argument. If this switch is not specified, it defaults to on when called from an interactive terminal and off otherwise. Controls whether to show a user friendly table and graphic illustrating the changes applied.
Takes a file system path. If specified the
*.conf files are read
from the specified directory instead of searching in
This parameter can be specified multiple times.
Takes a file system path. Configures the encryption key to use when setting up LUKS2
volumes configured with the
Encrypt=key-file setting in partition files. Should
refer to a regular file containing the key, or an
AF_UNIX stream socket in the
file system. In the latter case a connection is made to it and the key read from it. If this switch
is not specified the empty key (i.e. zero length key) is used. This behaviour is useful for setting
up encrypted partitions during early first boot that receive their user-supplied password only in a
later setup step.
Takes a file system path. Configures the signing key to use when creating verity
signature partitions with the
Verity=signature setting in partition files.
Takes a file system path. Configures the PEM encoded X.509 certificate to use when
creating verity signature partitions with the
Verity=signature setting in
Configures the TPM2 device and list of PCRs to use for LUKS2 volumes configured with
Encrypt=tpm2 option. These options take the same parameters as the identically
named options to
and have the same effect on partitions where TPM2 enrollment is requested.
Configures a TPM2 SRK key to bind encryption to. See systemd-cryptenroll(1) for details on this option.
Configures a TPM2 signed PCR policy to bind encryption to. See systemd-cryptenroll(1) for details on these two options.
Configures a TPM2 pcrlock policy to bind encryption to. See systemd-cryptenroll(1) for details on this option.
Enables generation of split artifacts from partitions configured with
SplitName=. If enabled, for each partition with
a separate output file containing just the contents of that partition is generated. The output
filename consists of the loopback filename suffixed with the name configured with
SplitName=. If the loopback filename ends with "
.raw", the suffix
is inserted before the "
.raw" extension instead.
--split is independent from
--dry-run. Even if
--dry-run is enabled, split artifacts will still be generated from an existing image
--split is enabled.
These options specify which partition types systemd-repart should
operate on. If
--include-partitions= is used, all partitions that aren't specified
are excluded. If
--exclude-partitions= is used, all partitions that are specified
are excluded. Both options take a comma separated list of GPT partition type UUIDs or identifiers
This option specifies for which partition types systemd-repart should defer. All partitions that are deferred using this option are still taken into account when calculating the sizes and offsets of other partitions, but aren't actually written to the disk image. The net effect of this option is that if you run systemd-repart again without this option, the missing partitions will be added as if they had not been deferred the first time systemd-repart was executed.
This option allows configuring the sector size of the image produced by
systemd-repart. It takes a value that is a power of "
512" and "
4096". This option is useful when building images for
disks that use a different sector size as the disk on which the image is produced.
This option allows overriding the architecture used for architecture specific
partition types. For example, if set to "
arm64" a partition type of
root-x86-64" referenced in
repart.d/ drop-ins will be patched
dynamically to refer to "
root-arm64" instead. Takes one of
Instructs systemd-repart to build the image offline. Takes a
boolean or "
auto". Defaults to "
auto". If enabled, the image is
built without using loop devices. This is useful to build images unprivileged or when loop devices
are not available. If disabled, the image is always built using loop devices. If
auto", systemd-repart will build the image online if possible
and fall back to building the image offline if loop devices are not available or cannot be accessed
due to missing permissions.
Instructs systemd-repart to synthesize partition definitions from the partition table in the given image. This option can be specified multiple times to synthesize definitions from each of the given images. The generated definitions will copy the partitions into the destination partition table. The copied partitions will have the same size, metadata and contents but might have a different partition number and might be located at a different offset in the destination partition table. These definitions can be combined with partition definitions read from regular partition definition files. The synthesized definitions take precedence over the definitions read from partition definition files.
Specifies a source directory all
CopyFiles= source paths shall be
considered relative to. This is similar to
--root=, but exclusively applies to the
CopyFiles= setting. If
--copy-source= are used in combination the former applies as usual, except for
CopyFiles= where the latter takes precedence.
Takes one of "
portable". Generates a Discoverable Disk Image (DDI) for a system extension
for details), configuration extension (confext) or portable service. The generated image will consist
of a signed Verity "
erofs" file system as root partition. In this mode of operation
the partition definitions in
/usr/lib/repart.d/*.conf and related directories
are not read, and
--definitions= is not supported, as appropriate definitions for
the selected DDI class will be chosen automatically.
Must be used in conjunction with
--copy-source= to specify the file hierarchy
to populate the DDI with. The specified directory should contain an
subdirectory if "
confext" is selected. If "
sysext" is selected it
should contain either a
opt/ directory, or both. If
portable" is used a full OS file hierarchy can be provided.
This option implies
--seed=random (the latter two can be overridden).
The private key and certificate for signing the DDI must be specified via the
Do not pipe output into a pager.
Do not print the legend, i.e. column headers and the footer with hints.
Shows output formatted as JSON. Expects one of "
short" (for the
shortest possible output without any redundant whitespace or line breaks), "
(for a pretty version of the same, with indentation and line breaks) or "
off" (to turn
off JSON output, the default).
On success, 0 is returned, a non-zero failure code otherwise.
Example 1. Generate a configuration extension image
The following creates a configuration extension DDI (confext) for an
mkdir tree tree/etc tree/etc/extension-release.d echo "Hello World" > tree/etc/motd cat > tree/etc/extension-release.d/extension-release.my-motd <<EOF ID=fedora VERSION_ID=38 IMAGE_ID=my-motd IMAGE_VERSION=7 EOF systemd-repart -C --private-key=privkey.pem --certificate=cert.crt -s tree/ /var/lib/confexts/my-motd.confext.raw systemd-confext refresh
The DDI generated that way may be applied to the system with systemd-confext(1).