dnssec-trust-anchors.d, systemd.positive, systemd.negative — DNSSEC trust anchor configuration files
The DNSSEC trust anchor configuration files define positive and negative trust anchors systemd-resolved.service(8) bases DNSSEC integrity proofs on.
Positive trust anchor configuration files contain DNSKEY and DS resource record definitions to use as base for DNSSEC integrity proofs. See RFC 4035, Section 4.4 for more information about DNSSEC trust anchors.
Positive trust anchors are read from files with the suffix
.positive located in
directories are searched in the specified order, and a trust
anchor file of the same name in an earlier path overrides a trust
anchor files in a later path. To disable a trust anchor file
it is sufficient to provide an identically-named file in
/run/dnssec-trust-anchors.d/ that is either
empty or a symlink to
Positive trust anchor files are simple text files resembling
DNS zone files, as documented in RFC 1035, Section
5. One DS or DNSKEY resource record may be listed per
line. Empty lines and lines starting with a semicolon
;") are ignored and considered comments. A DS
resource record is specified like in the following example:
. IN DS 19036 8 2 49aac11d7b6f6446702e54a1607371607a1a41855200fd2ce1cdde32f24e8fb5
The first word specifies the domain, use
." for the root domain. The domain may be
specified with or without trailing dot, which is considered
equivalent. The second word must be "
third word "
DS". The following words specify the
key tag, signature algorithm, digest algorithm, followed by the
hex-encoded key fingerprint. See RFC 4034,
Section 5 for details about the precise syntax and meaning
of these fields.
Alternatively, DNSKEY resource records may be used to define trust anchors, like in the following example:
. IN DNSKEY 257 3 8 AwEAAagAIKlVZrpC6Ia7gEzahOR+9W29euxhJhVVLOyQbSEW0O8gcCjFFVQUTf6v58fLjwBd0YI0EzrAcQqBGCzh/RStIoO8g0NfnfL2MTJRkxoXbfDaUeVPQuYEhg37NZWAJQ9VnMVDxP/VHL496M/QZxkjf5/Efucp2gaDX6RS6CXpoY68LsvPVjR0ZSwzz1apAzvN9dlzEheX7ICJBBtuA6G3LQpzW5hOA2hzCTMjJPJ8LbqF6dsV6DoBQzgul0sGIcGOYl7OyQdXfZ57relSQageu+ipAdTTJ25AsRTAoub8ONGcLmqrAmRLKBP1dfwhYB4N7knNnulqQxA+Uk1ihz0=
The first word specifies the domain again, the second word
must be "
IN", followed by
DNSKEY". The subsequent words encode the DNSKEY
flags, protocol and algorithm fields, followed by the key data
encoded in Base64. See RFC 4034,
Section 2 for details about the precise syntax and meaning
of these fields.
If multiple DS or DNSKEY records are defined for the same domain (possibly even in different trust anchor files), all keys are used and are considered equivalent as base for DNSSEC proofs.
automatically use a built-in trust anchor key for the Internet
root domain if no positive trust anchors are defined for the root
domain. In most cases it is hence unnecessary to define an
explicit key with trust anchor files. The built-in key is disabled
as soon as at least one trust anchor key for the root domain is
defined in trust anchor files.
It is generally recommended to encode trust anchors in DS resource records, rather than DNSKEY resource records.
If a trust anchor specified via a DS record is found revoked
it is automatically removed from the trust anchor database for the
runtime. See RFC
5011 for details about revoked trust anchors. Note that
systemd-resolved will not update its trust
anchor database from DNS servers automatically. Instead, it is
recommended to update the resolver software or update the new
trust anchor via adding in new trust anchor files.
The current DNSSEC trust anchor for the Internet's root domain is available at the IANA Trust Anchor and Keys page.
Negative trust anchors define domains where DNSSEC validation shall be turned
off. Negative trust anchor files are found at the same location as positive trust anchor files,
and follow the same overriding rules. They are text files with the
.negative suffix. Empty lines and lines whose first character is
;" are ignored. Each line specifies one domain name which is the root of a DNS
subtree where validation shall be disabled.
Negative trust anchors are useful to support private DNS subtrees that are not referenced from the Internet DNS hierarchy, and not signed.
RFC 7646 for details on negative trust anchors.
If no negative trust anchor files are configured a built-in set of well-known private DNS zone domains is used as negative trust anchors.
It is also possibly to define per-interface negative trust
anchors using the