systemd.journal-fields — Special journal fields
Entries in the journal resemble an environment block in their syntax, however with fields that can include binary data. Primarily, fields are formatted UTF-8 text strings, and binary formatting is used only where formatting as UTF-8 text strings makes little sense. New fields may freely be defined by applications, but a few fields have special meaning. All fields with special meanings are optional. In some cases fields may appear more than once per entry.
User fields are fields that are directly passed from clients and stored in the journal.
The human readable message string for this entry. This is supposed to be the primary text shown to the user. It is usually not translated (but might be in some cases), and is not supposed to be parsed for meta data.
A 128bit message identifier ID for recognizing certain message types, if this is desirable. This should contain a 128bit id formatted as lower-case hexadecimal string, without any separating dashes or suchlike. This is recommended to be a UUID compatible ID, but this is not enforced, and formatted differently. Developers can generate a new ID for this purpose with journalctl --new-id.
A priority value between
formatted as decimal
string. This field is
compatible with syslog's
The code location generating this message, if known. Contains the source file name, the line number and the function name.
The low-level Unix error number causing this entry, if any. Contains the numeric value of errno(3) formatted as decimal string.
Syslog compatibility fields containing the facility (formatted as decimal string), the identifier string (i.e. "tag"), and the client PID.
Fields prefixed with an underscore are trusted fields, i.e. fields that are implicitly added by the journal and cannot be altered by client code.
The process, user and group ID of the process the journal entry originates from formatted as decimal string.
The name, the executable path and the command line of the process the journal entry originates from.
The session and login UID of the process the journal entry originates from, as maintained by the kernel audit subsystem.
The control group path in the systemd hierarchy, the systemd session ID (if any), the systemd unit name (if any), the systemd user session unit name (if any) and the owner UID of the systemd session (if any) of the process the journal entry originates from.
The SELinux security context of the process the journal entry originates from.
The earliest trusted timestamp of the message, if any is known that is different from the reception time of the journal. This is the time in usec since the epoch UTC formatted as decimal string.
The kernel boot ID for the boot the message was generated in, formatted as 128bit hexadecimal string.
The machine ID of the originating host, as available in machine-id(5).
The name of the originating host.
How the entry was
received by the journal
service. One of
internally generated messages,
for those received via the
local syslog socket with the
syslog protocol, for those
received via the native
journal protocol, for the
those read from a services'
standard output or error
output, or for those read
from the kernel, respectively.
Kernel fields are fields that are used by messages originating in the kernel and stored in the journal.
The kernel device name. If the entry is associated to a block device, the major and minor of the device node, separated by ':' and prefixed by 'b'. Similar for character devices, but prefixed by 'c'. For network devices the interface index, prefixed by 'n'. For all other devices '+' followed by the subsystem name, followed by ':', followed by the kernel device name.
The kernel subsystem name.
The kernel device name
as it shows up in the device
The device node path of
this device in
Additional symlink names
pointing to the device node in
field is frequently set more
than once per entry.
Fields used by the systemd-coredump coredump kernel helper.
During serialization into external formats, such as the Journal Export Format or the Journal JSON Format, the addresses of journal entries are serialized into fields prefixed with double underscores. Note that these aren't proper fields when stored in the journal, but addressing meta data of entries. They cannot be written as part of structured log entries via calls such as sd_journal_send(3). They may also not be used as matches for sd_journal_add_match(3)
The cursor for the entry. A cursor is an opaque text string that uniquely describes the position of an entry in the journal and is portable across machines, platforms and journal files.
The wallclock time
(CLOCK_REALTIME) at the point
in time the entry was received
by the journal, in usec since
the epoch UTC formatted as
decimal string. This has
different properties from
as it is usually a bit later
but more likely to be
The monotonic time
(CLOCK_MONOTONIC) at the point
in time the entry was received
by the journal in usec
formatted as decimal
string. To be useful as an
address for the entry this
should be combined with with
boot ID in