systemd-analyze — Analyze system boot-up performance
systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] [time]
systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] blame
systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] critical-chain [
systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] plot [> file.svg]
systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] dot [
PATTERN...] [> file.dot]
systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] dump
systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] set-log-level [
systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] verify [
systemd-analyze may be used to determine system boot-up performance statistics and retrieve other state and tracing information from the system and service manager, and to verify the correctness of unit files.
systemd-analyze time prints the time spent in the kernel before userspace has been reached, the time spent in the initial RAM disk (initrd) before normal system userspace has been reached, and the time normal system userspace took to initialize. Note that these measurements simply measure the time passed up to the point where all system services have been spawned, but not necessarily until they fully finished initialization or the disk is idle.
systemd-analyze blame prints a list of all running units, ordered by the time they took to initialize. This information may be used to optimize boot-up times. Note that the output might be misleading as the initialization of one service might be slow simply because it waits for the initialization of another service to complete.
systemd-analyze critical-chain [
prints a tree of the time-critical chain of units
(for each of the specified
or for the default target otherwise).
The time after the unit is active or started is printed
after the "@" character. The time the unit takes to
start is printed after the "+" character.
Note that the output might be misleading as the
initialization of one service might depend on socket
activation and because of the parallel execution
systemd-analyze plot prints an SVG graphic detailing which system services have been started at what time, highlighting the time they spent on initialization.
systemd-analyze dot generates
textual dependency graph description in dot format for
further processing with the GraphViz
tool. Use a command line like systemd-analyze
dot | dot -Tsvg > systemd.svg to generate a
graphical dependency tree. Unless
is passed, the generated graph will show both ordering
and requirement dependencies. Optional pattern
globbing style specifications
*.target) may be given at
the end. A unit dependency is included in the graph if
any of these patterns match either the origin or
systemd-analyze dump outputs a (usually very long) human-readable serialization of the complete server state. Its format is subject to change without notice and should not be parsed by applications.
LEVEL changes the
current log level of the systemd
the same values as
systemd-analyze verify will load unit files and print warnings if any errors are detected. Files specified on the command line will be loaded, but also any other units referenced by them. This command works by prepending the directories for all command line arguments at the beginning of the unit load path, which means that all units files found in those directories will be used in preference to the unit files found in the standard locations, even if not listed explicitly.
If no command is passed, systemd-analyze time is implied.
The following options are understood:
Operates on the user systemd instance.
Operates on the system systemd instance. This is the implied default.
When used in
conjunction with the
dot command (see
above), selects which dependencies are
shown in the dependency graph. If
--order is passed,
only dependencies of type
is passed, only dependencies of type
shown. If neither is passed, this shows
dependencies of all these
When used in conjunction with the dot command (see above), this selects which relationships are shown in the dependency graph. They both require glob(7) patterns as arguments, which are matched against left-hand and right-hand, respectively, nodes of a relationship. Each of these can be used more than once, which means a unit name must match one of the given values.
When used in conjunction
with the critical-chain
command (see above), also show units, which
timespan earlier, than the
latest unit in the same level. The unit of
timespan is seconds
unless specified with a different unit,
Do not invoke man to verify the existence
of man pages listen in
Execute the operation remotely. Specify a hostname, or a
username and hostname separated by "
connect to. The hostname may optionally be suffixed by a
container name, separated by "
connects directly to a specific container on the specified
host. This will use SSH to talk to the remote machine manager
instance. Container names may be enumerated with
Do not pipe output into a pager.
On success, 0 is returned, a non-zero failure code otherwise.
Example 1. Plots all dependencies of any unit whose
name starts with "
$ systemd-analyze dot 'avahi-daemon.*' | dot -Tsvg > avahi.svg $ eog avahi.svg
Example 2. Plots the dependencies between all known target units
systemd-analyze dot --to-pattern='*.target' --from-pattern='*.target' | dot -Tsvg > targets.svg $ eog targets.svg
The following errors are currently detected:
unknown sections and directives,
missing dependencies which are required to start the given unit,
man pages listed in
Documentation= which are
not found in the system,
commands listed in
ExecStart= and similar
which are not found in the system or not
Example 3. Misspelt directives
$ cat ./user.slice [Unit] WhatIsThis=11 Documentation=man:nosuchfile(1) Requires=different.service [Service] Desription=x $ systemd-verify ./user.slice [./user.slice:9] Unknown lvalue 'WhatIsThis' in section 'Unit' [./user.slice:13] Unknown section 'Service'. Ignoring. Error: org.freedesktop.systemd1.LoadFailed: Unit different.service failed to load: No such file or directory. Failed to create user.slice/start: Invalid argument user.slice: man nosuchfile(1) command failed with code 16
Example 4. Missing service units
$ tail ./a.socket ./b.socket ==> ./a.socket <== [Socket] ListenStream=100 ==> ./b.socket <== [Socket] ListenStream=100 Accept=yes $ systemd-verify ./a.socket ./b.socket Service a.service not loaded, a.socket cannot be started. Service email@example.com not loaded, b.socket cannot be started.